King Penguin References

2005. “Levensverwachting of ouderdom” (On-line). Accessed December 6, 2009 at

Barrat A. 1976. Quelques aspects de la biologie et de l’ecologie du manchot Royal (Aptenodytes patagonicus) des Iles Crozet. Comite National Francais de Reserches Antarctique, 40: 9-51.

Cherel Y, Maho Y. L. 1985. Five months of fasting in King Penguin chicks: body mass loss and fuel metabolism. Amer. J. Physiol. 249: R387- R392.

Croxall J. P. 1982. Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins 
Journal of Animal Ecology. 51(1): 177-194.

Croxall J. P, Trathan P. N, Murphy E. J. 2002. Environmental Change and Antarctic Seabird Populations. Science. 297(5586): 1510-1514.

Delord K, Barbraud C, Weimerskirch H. 2004. Long-term trends in the population size of king penguins at Crozet Archipelago: environmental variability and density dependence? Polar Biol. 27: 793–800.

Francois, J. 2002. “World’s oldest captive penguin dies” (On-line). Accessed December 6, 2009 at

Gauthier-Clerc M, Maho Y, Gendner J. P, Handrich Y. 2002. Moulting fast and time constraint for reproduction in the king penguin. Polar Biol. 25: 288-295.

Gauthier-Clerc M, Mangin S, Le Bohec C, Gendner J, Maho Y. 2003. Comparison of behaviour, body mass, haematocrit level, site fidelity and survival between infested and non-infested king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus by ticks Ixodes uriae. Polar Biol. 26: 379–382.

Guinet C, Jouventin P, Malacamp J. 1995. Satellite remote sensing in monitoring change of seabirds: use of Spot Image in king penguin population increase at Ile aux Cochons, Crozet Archipelago. Polar Biology.15(7): 511-515.

Le Bohec et al. 2007. Population dynamics in a long-lived seabird: I. Impact of breeding activity on survival and breeding probability in unbanded king penguins. Journal of Animal Ecology. 76(6): 1149 – 1160.

Otley H, Clausen A, Christie D, Huin N, Pütz K. 2007. Breeding patterns of King Penguins on the Falkland Islands. Emu 107:2, 156.

Robin J. P, Cherel Y, Frain M, Sardet C, Gros-Colas R, Maho Y. 1986. Metabolic adaptations to long-term fasting during breeding cycle in Emperor and King penguins. pp. 303-309 in Endocrine regulation as adaptive mechanisms to the environment (I. Assenmacher and J. Boissin, Ed.). Paris, Editions du CNRS.

Spearman R. I. C. 1969. The epidermis and feather follicles of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonica). Zoomorphology 64(4): 361-372.

Stonehouse B. 1956. The King Penguin of South Georgia. Nature 178, 1424 – 1426.

Weimerskirch H., Stahl J. C, Jouventin P. 1992. The breeding biology and population dynamics of King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonica on the Crozet Islands. Ibis 134:107-117.

Williams, T. D. The Penguins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Woehler E. J, Croxall J. P. 1997. Status of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seabirds Marine Orinithology. 25: 43–66.