African Penguin References

—. 1994b. Counts of moulting and breeding Jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus: A comparison at Robben Island, 1988-1993. Marine Ornithology 22: 213-219.

—. 1994c. Counts of moulting and breeding Jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus: A comparison at Robben Island, 1988-1993. Marine Ornithology 22: 213-219.

Avian Demography Unit, University of Capetown. Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan for the African Penguin Spheniscus demersus. Ed. Ellis S, Croxall JP, Cooper J. 1996 Captown, South Africa. Updated 2000.

Crawford RJM, V D Boonstra HG. 1994a. Counts of moulting and breeding Jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus: A comparison at Robben Island, 1988-1993. Marine Ornithology 22: 213-219.

Crawford, R.J.M., Williams, A.J., Hofmeyer, J.H., Klages, N.T.W., Randall, R.M., Cooper, J., Dyer, B.M. and Y. Chesselet 1995-Trends of African Penguin Spheniscus demersuspopulations in the 20th century. S. Afr. J. ma. Sci. 16:101-118.

Crawford RJM, Underhill LG, Coetzee JC, Fairweather T, Shannon LJ, Wolfaardt AC. 2008. Influences of the abundance and distribution of prey on African penguins Spheniscus demersus off western South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 167-175.

Crawford RJM, Underhill LG, Coetzee JC, Fairweather T, Shannon LJ, Wolfaardt AC. 2008. Influences of the abundance and distribution of prey on African penguins Spheniscus demersus off western South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 167-175.

Cordes, I., Crawfor, R. J.M., Williams, A.J., and Dyer B.M. 1999-Decrease of African penguins at the Possession Island group, 1956-1995: contrasting trends for colonial and solitary breeders. Mar. Ornithol. 27: 129-138.

Kemper, J. Roux, J-P., Bartlett, P.A., Chesselet, Y.J., James, J.A.C., Jones, R., Weperner, S., and Molly, F.J., 2001. Recent Population Trends of African Penguin Spheniscus Demersusin Namibia. S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 23: 429-434.

Kemper J, Roux J-P. 2005. Of squeezers and skippers: factors determining the age at moult of immature African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. Ibis 147: 346-352.

Kemper J, Roux J-P, Underhill LG. 2008. EFFECT OF AGE AND BREEDING STATUS ON MOLT PHENOLOGY OF ADULT AFRICAN PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) IN NAMIBIA. Auk 125: 809-819.

Petersen SL, Ryan PG, Gremillet D. 2006. Is food availability limiting African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders? A comparison of foraging effort at mainland and island colonies. Ibis 148: 14-26.

Roberts A. African Penguin Spheniscus demersus Brilpikkeyn. In The Birds of South Africa. London, H.G. & G. Witherby, Ltd.; 1985

Roux JP, Kemper J, Bartlett PA, Dyer BM, Dundee BL. 2003. African penguins Spheniscus demersus recolonise a formerly abandoned nesting locality in Namibia. Marine Ornithology 31: 203-205.

Shelton PA, Crawford RJM, Cooper J, Brooke RK. 1984. DISTRIBUTION POPULATION SIZE AND CONSERVATION OF THE JACKASS PENGUIN SPHENISCUS-DEMERSUS. South African Journal of Marine Science: 217-257.

Underhill L.G., Crawford, R.J.M., Wolfaardt, A.C., Whittington, P.A., Dyer, B.M., Leshoro, T.M., Ruthenberg, M., Upfold, L., 2006. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1987-2005. Afr. J. mar. Sci: 28 (3&4):697-704.

Williams AJ, Cooper J. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus demersus.  Pages 841-853 in Proceedings of the Fifth Pan-African Ornithological Congress (J. A. Ledger, Ed.). South African Ornithological Society, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Underhill LG, Crawford RJM, Wolfaardt AC. 2003. Trends in african penguin Spheniscus demersus populations in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1992-2002. Vogelwarte 42: 150.

Whittington P, Klages N, Crawford R, Wolfaardt A, Kemper J. 2005a. Age at first breeding of the African Penguin. Ostrich 76: 14-20.

Whittington PA, Randall RM, Crawford RJM, Wolfaardt AC, Klages NTW, Randall BM, Bartlett PA, Chesselet YJ, Jones R. 2005b. Patterns of immigration to and emigration from breeding colonies by African penguins. African Journal of Marine Science 27: 205-213.

Whittington PA, Randall RM, Randall BM, Wolfaardt AC, Crawford RJM, Klages NTW, Bartlett PA, Chesselet YJ, Jones R. 2005c. Patterns of movements of the African penguin in South Africa and Namibia. African Journal of Marine Science 27: 215-229.

Williams AJ, Cooper J. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus demersus.  Pages 841-853 in Proceedings of the Fifth Pan-African Ornithological Congress (J. A. Ledger, Ed.). South African Ornithological Society, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Wilson RP. 1985. SEASONALITY IN DIET AND BREEDING SUCCESS OF THE JACKASS PENGUIN SPHENISCUS-DEMERSUS. Journal fuer Ornithologie 126: 53-62.